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Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Bolivia 2009

2009


Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015


Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

Statistics

Figure 7


Source: UDAPE, based on INE household surveys; pp = Preliminary figure subject to revision. e = Projected

Interpretation

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

This indicator measures the share of women in wage employment in the manufacturing and services sector, as a percentage of the total number of workers in those sectors. The extent to which labour markets are open to women not only affects equity with respect to employment opportunities, but also the economic efficiency associated with a flexible labour market capable of adapting to change.

In 2008, a little more than one third of wage-earners in the non-agricultural sector were women (34.8 per cent women versus 65.2 per cent men). These data show that there is still a marked gender bias in Bolivian labour markets. Overall, the share of women in non-agricultural wage employment has not changed significantly over the past 10 years, as the proportion of female wage-earners only rose from 31.3 per cent in 1996 to 34.8 per cent in 2008 (Figure 7).

Breaking this indicator down by area of residence, the share of women in wage employment in rural areas in 2008 was 26.9 per cent and in urban areas 36.2 per cent. This difference between areas contrasts with the situation 12 years before, when women’s share of wage employment in rural areas was barely 20.9 per cent. In line with the national trend, there has been no significant change in women’s share of the urban labour market. By contrast, the proportion of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector in rural areas increased by 16 percentage points between 1996 and 2008. Although this marked increase in rural women’s labour participation in the manufacturing and services sectors is encouraging, it should be noted that most rural employment in Bolivia is agricultural.

Related Links

MDG Monitor Country Profile Bolivia

The Official United Nations site for the MDG Indicators

World Bank Country Brief Bolivia


Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

Statistics

Figure 6


Source: Based on SIE data (Ministry of Education) and UDAPE (2007) Datum calculated by UDAPE. This figure differs from the gap reported in the Ministry of EducationÂ’s Dossier of School Statistics and Indicators because the population figure used was that which takes census omission into account in order to be consistent with the rest of the series.

Interpretation

Gender gap at the end of eighth grade primary education

In the Plurinational State of Bolivia, gender differences in the rates for pupils completing eighth grade of primary school have practically been eliminated. The figures show a marked narrowing of the gender gap over the past seven years. In 2001-2007, the gender gap narrowed from 3.7 points in favour of men in 2001 to 2.1 points in favour of women in 2006 (Figure 6).

The figures for 2006 and 2007 indicate that the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) regarding elimination of the gender gap in the completion rate has practically been achieved, although the trend in this indicator suggests that it will be necessary to consider actions to avoid an increasingly negative gap to the detriment of males.

Related Links

MDG Monitor Country Profile Bolivia

The Official United Nations site for the MDG Indicators

World Bank Country Brief Bolivia