Browse Policies

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Bolivia 2009

2009


Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day


Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

Statistics

Figure 3


Interpretation


Proportion of children under three years of age suffering from chronic malnutrition

Chronic malnutrition indicators measure retardation in children’s growth based on age/height measurements in respect of a benchmark population.5. In Bolivia, data on the prevalence of child malnutrition are taken from the National Demographic and Health Surveys (ENDSA), conducted every four to five years. The latest ENDSA in Bolivia was conducted between February and June 2008 and the information for this year is still preliminary. Chronic malnutrition in Bolivia has tended to decline over the past 20 years, falling 17.4 percentage points between 1989 and 2008. This decline was most marked between 1989 and 1994 and again, recently, between 2003 and 2008 (Figure 3).

Low height is most prevalent in rural areas in which malnutrition in children under three years of age is almost three times as common as it is in urban areas. In 2008, 30.4 per cent of children in rural areas were undernourished, compared to 11.8 per cent in urban areas.

Malnutrition rates broken down by area show that only slight improvements have taken place in urban areas, while urban malnutrition fell sharply from 18.5 per cent to 11.8 per cent in five years.

Taking 1989 levels as its point of reference, the Millennium Goal is to reduce the prevalence of chronic malnutrition to 19 per cent by 2015. However, the National Development Plan’s Multisectoral Zero Malnutrition Program envisages a much more aggressive reduction of malnutrition rates and expects to eradicate chronic malnutrition in children by 2010.

 

Related Links

MDG Monitor Country Profile Bolivia

The Official United Nations site for the MDG Indicators

World Bank Country Brief Bolivia


Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

Statistics

  Figure 1

Figure 2


Source: Social and Economic Policies Analysis Unit of Bolivia (UDAPE) based on INE Household Surveys. (pp) Preliminary figures subject to revision. (e) Projected.

Interpretation

Proportion of the population living in extreme poverty

The incidence of extreme poverty or indigence is the percentage of people with income below the cost of the basic food basket. Over the past 10 years, the proportion of persons living in extreme poverty declined 9.4 percentage points, from 41.2 per cent of the total population in 1996 to 31.8 per cent in 2008 (Figure 1). However, it is worth noting that the most marked reduction (6 percentage points) occurred in 2007 and 2008.

Broken down into urban and rural areas, the data show that extreme poverty has declined in both areas since 2000, with the sharpest decline occurring in rural areas. The proportion of persons living in extreme poverty in rural areas fell from 75 per cent in 2000 to 49.2 per cent in 2008 (26 percentage points); in urban areas it fell from 27.9 per cent to 22.7 per cent (5.2 percentage points). Despite these improvements, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty in rural areas is 1.17 times greater than in urban areas.

The sharp fluctuations of extreme poverty in rural areas reflect the vulnerability of the inhabitants of those areas to adverse events, such as natural disasters or economic downturns, such as those that occurred in 1999 and 2000, when extreme poverty in rural areas was 70 per cent and 75 per cent, respectively.


Share of the poorest quintile in national income

One income distribution indicator is the share of national income corresponding to the poorest quintile of the population. The performance of this indicator shows that, over 12 years, the poorest quintile increased its share in the generation of income in the economy. Up to 2005, the share of income generated by the poorest quintile averaged 1.7 per cent. By 2008, that is to say, in the past three years, that share increased to 2.5 per cent (Figure 2).

A breakdown into urban and rural areas reveals large discrepancies between areas. In 2008, the poorest quintile in urban areas helped generate 1.2 per cent of total urban income. In contrast, the poorest quintile in rural areas generated 7.2 per cent of rural income. It is noteworthy that, in the last couple of years, the poorest in rural areas increased their share of income, as a result of increased government transfers to specific population groups.

Related Links

MDG Monitor Country Profile Bolivia

The Official United Nations site for the MDG Indicators

World Bank Country Brief Bolivia