Browse Policies

National Five-Year Strategic Development Plan (2007-2011) and Twenty Five Year National Strategy (2007-2031)

Sudan

2009

Context

For the past 25 years Sudan has experienced a complex conflict between the South and the North. As a result of numerous peace initiatives and tough peace negotiations, a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in January 2005. However, immediately after the Government of Unity had settled down to implement the post-conflict institutional and development commitments, the conflict in Darfur broke out and drew much of the government attention away from reducing regional inequality and the overall level of poverty. Consequently, the development process has been slowed down.

 

Sudan, as a member State of the United Nations and signatory to the 2000 Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs), remains committed to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals as well as the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan. According to the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, the overarching aims of economic development shall be the eradication of poverty, attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, guaranteeing the equitable distribution of wealth, redressing imbalances of income, and achieving a decent standard of life for all citizens.

Analysis | Lessons | Good Practices

Analysis

National policies in Sudan are categorized in to long term national development strategy known as the Twenty- Five Years National Strategy (2007 -2031) and the medium term Five – Year Plan (2007 – 2011).

The vision of the Twenty –Five Years Strategy, is “continue to build a unified, secure and peaceful Sudan founded on the principles of pluralism, federalism, equitable distribution of wealth and safeguarded by social co-existence, peace and the rule of law. A Sudan where cultural and social diversity is a source of strength, stable on the basis of effective national partnership for sustainable development and fostering mutual relations with the international community serving reciprocal interests”.

The National Five-Year Strategic Development Plan for Sudan (2007-2011) – the first since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement – provides a development framework for the coordination of the Nation’s peace and development efforts. The Plan has been prepared by the National Council for Strategic Planning (NCSP) with the participation of hundreds of people throughout the country, which represented all groups of Sudanese society.

Mission of the five-year plan (2007-2011):

1. Realizing the political stability and sustainable peace through national unity, national accord and the implementation of the Peace Agreements together with safeguarding national sovereignty, national securing and activating the role of the civil society organisations in order to contribute in implementing the objectives of the Five year plan and building up balanced relations with international community.

2. Fostering the concept of citizenship which, based on complete belonging to the history of the country and uphold the contribution of its components in its progress. The concept of citizenship that enabled the Sudanese identify to become a loyalty superseding tribalism and regionalism in pursuit of co-existence, integrated rebirth and furthermore laid the foundation for social and cultural system that would inspire the political and economic movement to achieve justice, equitable and decent life for all.

3. Sustainable development through building the infrastructure, modernizing and development agriculture, increase production and productivity, enabling the private sector to guide the economic development and building an economy of equitable supply of basic services such as potable water, primary and preventive health, education and shelter.

4. Reducing of poverty and realizing an equitable balance between the rural and urban areas. Also support the funding of quick-impact projects designed for poor and in particular for the displaced and war –affected population.

5. Development good governance and democratic process secured by basic freedoms, rule of law, respect of human rights and justice, furthermore restoring to the principle of responsibility and accountability on three pronged levels of governance.

6. Building and development capacities, reforming institutions and civil society cadre by focusing on regional and local levels. Furthermore development the expertise of individuals enabling all to contribute in economic, social and cultural development based on burden-sharing, cooperation and the respect of work, time and quality values.

7. Furthering the use of information technology and communication to enhance performance in terms of effectiveness, competence and quality. Furthermore, developing the local competencies and capacities economically, institutionally and administratively.


People-centred policy framework

The Republic of the Sudan is committed to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. As laid out in the National Five-Year Strategic Development Plan, these aims are to be achieved in the context of a decentralized State characterized by three levels.

Sudan has placed a lot of emphasis on the involvement of the people in designing and implementing the national development policies. According to the promulgated constitution of 2005 decentralization policy has been a deliberate move to devolve power to the local government level. The government levels can be summarized as follows:

   1. National level according to the national constitution which shall exercise authority with a view protecting the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Sudan and promoted the welfare of its people and consist of the following:
         A-presidency of the republic
         B-national council of ministries
         C-national legislative composed of two houses the national assembly and the council of states.

   2. Southern Sudan level, wich, according to the constitution, shall exercise authority in respect of the people and States of southern Sudan.

   3. The state level, which, according to the state constitution, shall exercise authority at state level throughout Sudan.

   4. Local level of government which shall be throughout the Sudan and render public service through a level closest to the people.

One of the core principles of intergovernmental linkages, which is to be respected in the administration of the decentralized system, concerns the linkage between the national level and the States in Southern Sudan, which shall be realized through the government of Southern Sudan.
 

Guiding principles for the equal distribution of resources and common wealth

Within the context of the decentralized system and the desired linkages between the various levels of government, the Interim National Constitution provides guiding principles for the equitable sharing of resources and common wealth. Among these principles is that resources and common wealth of Sudan shall be shared equitably to enable each level of government to discharge its legal and constitutional responsibilities and duties and to insure that the quality of life, dignity, and living conditions of all citizens are promoted without discrimination on ground of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language, or region. The sharing and allocation of the resources and common wealth of Sudan shall be based on the premise that all parts of the country are entitled to development. The national government shall fulfill its obligations to provide financial transfers to the government of Southern Sudan and shall apportion revenues among other States. Revenue sharing shall reflect a commitment to devolution of powers and decentralization of decision making in regard to development, service delivery, and governance. No level of government shall withhold any allocation or financial transfers due to any other level of government.

Furthermore, the Interim Constitution created a special commission named the “Fiscal and Financial Allocation and Monitoring Commission”, which is obliged to ensure the transparency and fairness in regard to the allocation of nationally collected funds to the Government of

Southern Sudan and the States. Respectively, all revenues collected nationally for or by the National Government shall be pooled in a national revenue fund administered by the National Treasury. Such funds shall embrace all accounts and sub-funds, into which money due to the Government is collected, reported, and deposited. The duties of the commission include: (a) Monitor and ensure that equalization grants from the National Revenue Fund are promptly transferred to respective levels of government. (b) Guarantee appropriate utilization and sharing of financial resources. (c) Ensure that revenues allocated to conflict affected areas are transferred in accordance with agreed formula. (d) Safeguard transparency and fairness in the allocation of funds to the Government of Southern Sudan and the States according to established ratios or percentages stipulated in the Interim Constitution of the Republic of Sudan.


Key challenges for the realization of the MDGs

A number of challenges will need to be overcome, including:

   1. Maintaining, whilst seeking progress, the distinctive Sudanese identity with its fundamental spiritual dimension;
   2. Achieving comprehensive peace and national unity, and ensuring that this leads to political and social stability, based on religious and political freedom, economic and social development and sharing of power and wealth;
   3. Achieving harmony between economic freedom and social justice;
   4. Consolidating the pillars of the federal state and decentralized government, which reconcile national unity with administrative independence.



Lessons

A number of challenges will need to be overcome, including:

   1. Maintaining, whilst seeking progress, the distinctive Sudanese identity with its fundamental spiritual dimension;
   2. Achieving comprehensive peace and national unity, and ensuring that this leads to political and social stability, based on religious and political freedom, economic and social development and sharing of power and wealth;
   3. Achieving harmony between economic freedom and social justice;
   4. Consolidating the pillars of the federal state and decentralized government, which reconcile national unity with administrative independence.


Good Practices